Ultrasound medical imaging: an engineer’s perspective, PhD course by A. Ramalli, P. Tortoli

Ultrasound imaging techniques are a widely used diagnostic tool in medicine. They owe their success to a series of features that make them ideal for medical applications. Indeed, they use a form of energy that does not entail harmful effects on biological tissues. Moreover, these techniques can be implemented in relatively low-cost and low-size systems working in real-time, which can be useful to perform exams directly at the bedside or in the operating room.
The course will provide the basics of the physics of ultrasound, starting from the ultrasound wave generation to the concepts of reflection and backscattering. Similarities between ultrasound echograpic and radar systems will be highlighted.
Then, the course will focus on the signal and image processing techniques used for morphological and motion (tissue and blood-flow) imaging. Technical requirements, limitations, and solutions, which impact the final image quality, will be discussed.
Finally, the course will give an overview of advanced, state-of-the-art equipment and techniques for biomedical applications, including ultrafast imaging systems and 3-D imaging.
The course includes a demo session with an ultrasound scanner fully developed by the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Florence.